Video Game Distribution Revolution: From Tangible Media to Digital Frontiers and Self-Publishing Mastery

Dive into the transformative journey of video game distribution, exploring the evolution from physical cartridges to digital downloads and streaming, spotlighting the empowering surge of self-publishing in the gaming industry. Outlined by 1D3 business development manager Skelius (Artems) Mortalis.

Key Players in Video Game Distribution

In the realm of video game distribution, four key players interact to bring a game from concept to consumer:

  • Developer: This is the entity responsible for the game's creation. Developers pour their creativity, technical skills, and resources into developing the game, ensuring it meets the vision they have set out.
  • Consumer: The end user who purchases and plays the game. This target audience is the ultimate judge of a game's success, as their engagement and satisfaction drive sales and reputation in the gaming community.
  • Store: A digital or physical platform where consumers discover and purchase games. Examples include digital marketplaces like the App Store, Steam, and Xbox Game Pass, as well as traditional brick-and-mortar stores such as GameStop.
  • Publisher: Publishers play a critical role in ensuring the game's success in the market. They are responsible for the distribution process, navigating the complexities of getting a game onto store shelves or digital libraries. Publishers set their own benchmarks for success and devise strategies to achieve it.

The role of a publisher in today's video game industry is multifaceted and expansive. Some publishers focus on porting games to various platforms, handling localization, or expanding the game's reach to new regions. 

Others act as investors, supporting developers to refine their projects to better suit the publisher's portfolio. Additionally, there are publishers who engage in co-development, offering substantial resources and sometimes even outsourcing certain development aspects. In this modern landscape, nearly every facet of game development can be outsourced, allowing the distribution of responsibilities across different entities.

The Role of Publishers in Video Game Distribution

The Role of Publishers in Video Game Distribution

In the early days of video game distribution, publishers were the linchpins of success. They handled the logistics of producing physical media, securing shelf space in retail stores, and executing marketing campaigns. This process was both capital-intensive and risk-laden, requiring publishers to invest heavily in the production and distribution of physical copies, often making or breaking a game's financial success. Publishers’ expertise in market analysis, branding, and promotional campaigns was crucial in navigating the retail landscape, making them indispensable partners for game developers.

Navigating the Shift to Digital

As the digital era dawned, publishers adeptly navigated the transition, evolving their roles to suit the new landscape. Their focus shifted towards managing digital rights, securing prominent placements on digital storefronts like Steam and the PlayStation Network, and mastering online marketing strategies. This evolution saw publishers adapting to new challenges, such as digital piracy, regional licensing issues, and the need for ongoing game support and updates. Despite the diminished need for physical production, publishers remained integral, leveraging their market knowledge and promotional prowess to ensure games stood out in an increasingly crowded digital marketplace.

The Advent of Self-Publishing

The shift towards digital distribution opened new avenues for game developers, notably the opportunity for self-publishing. This approach has provided developers with a range of benefits, reshaping the power dynamics within the industry.

Comparing Business Models: Working with a Publisher vs. Self-Publishing

The decision between working with a publisher and choosing the self-publishing route is pivotal for game developers, each path offering distinct advantages and challenges that can significantly impact a game's development, marketing, and financial success.

Working with a Publisher


  • Funding and Resources: Publishers often provide upfront funding for development, marketing, and distribution, alleviating financial pressures on developers.
  • Market Expertise: Established publishers bring valuable industry knowledge, marketing prowess, and distribution networks, enhancing a game's reach and visibility.
  • Development Support: Beyond financial backing, publishers may offer development resources, including access to proprietary tools, talent, and additional content to enrich the game.


  • Creative Control: Developers might have to compromise on their creative vision, aligning their game more closely with the publisher’s market strategy and goals.
  • Revenue Sharing: Financial success means sharing a significant portion of the game's profits with the publisher, according to the agreed terms.
  • Contractual Obligations: Developers are bound by contractual agreements, which can limit flexibility in decision-making and future game development options.

Choosing Self-Publishing


  • Creative Freedom: Developers retain full control over their game's creative direction, development timeline, and feature set.
  • Direct Financial Returns: All revenue generated from game sales goes directly to the developer, after platform fees, enhancing potential profitability.
  • Direct Community Engagement: Self-publishing allows developers to build and manage their relationships with players, fostering a loyal community around their game.


  • Financial Risk: All development, marketing, and distribution costs are the developer's responsibility, requiring significant upfront investment or alternative funding methods.
  • Marketing and Distribution: Without the network and expertise of a publisher, developers must navigate marketing, distribution, and sales on their own, which can be daunting and time-consuming.
  • Operational Complexities: Self-publishing involves managing the business aspects of game distribution, including global compliance, taxes, and customer support, which can detract from the development focus.

Success Stories of Self-Published Games

The video game industry is replete with examples of self-published titles that have achieved critical acclaim and financial success, showcasing the potential of independent game development.

Path of Exile by Grinding Gear Games

Path of Exile, developed by Grinding Gear Games, stands as a testament to the success achievable through self-publishing in the niche of action role-playing games (ARPGs). 

Opting for a model that emphasizes player fairness and engagement, Grinding Gear Games developed Path of Exile with a deep commitment to the free-to-play experience, supported by ethical microtransactions. 

The game's continuous updates, community engagement, and expansion packs have sustained its popularity and growth, making it a leading title in the ARPG genre. Grinding Gear Games' approach to self-publishing, including building their own distribution platform, showcases the viability of self-reliance and direct community engagement in the competitive gaming market.

Genshin Impact by miHoYo

Genshin Impact, developed by miHoYo (now known as HoYoverse), represents another groundbreaking success in self-publishing. With its expansive open world and engaging gameplay, Genshin Impact took the gaming world by storm, offering a free-to-play model that is both accessible and financially successful. 

By bypassing traditional distribution channels and leveraging direct-to-consumer sales, miHoYo has managed to create a highly profitable game, underpinned by a continuous stream of content updates and in-game purchases. The game's cross-platform availability further amplifies its success, demonstrating the potential of self-published titles to achieve global reach and financial success.

Minecraft by Mojang

Minecraft is a quintessential success story in the world of self-publishing. Initially created by Markus Persson and later developed and published by his company Mojang, Minecraft became a cultural phenomenon, attracting millions of players worldwide. 

Its success led to Mojang's acquisition by Microsoft, but its journey began as a self-published title, highlighting the potential of a unique game concept and direct engagement with the gaming community.

Leveraging Merchant of Record Services for Self-Publishing Success

In self-publishing, developers face the challenge of creating and marketing their games and the complex world of global sales, taxes, and compliance. This is where Merchant of Record (MoR) services become invaluable. Acting as an intermediary between the self-publishing developer and their global audience, MoR services simplify the financial and legal intricacies of selling games across different countries and regions.

Simplifying Global Sales and Compliance

MoR services take on the responsibility of processing sales, managing taxes, and ensuring compliance with local tax laws, relieving developers of the burden of navigating these complexities themselves. This includes handling VAT in Europe, sales tax in the United States, and other region-specific financial obligations.

By partnering with an MoR, developers can focus on what they do best—creating engaging games—while leaving the intricate details of global e-commerce to experts.

Streamlining Payments

Payments are another area where MoR services shine. They offer developers a range of payment options to offer their customers, from credit cards and PayPal to regional payment methods. This flexibility increases the potential customer base and ensures that players from various parts of the world can easily purchase games. Furthermore, MoR services manage all aspects of payment processing, including security, fraud prevention, and currency conversion, providing a seamless transaction experience for both developers and gamers.

Enhancing Revenue Generation

By utilizing an MoR service, developers can also tap into advanced analytics and reporting tools that provide insights into sales patterns and market trends. This data is crucial for refining marketing strategies, optimizing pricing, and ultimately enhancing revenue generation. Additionally, MoR services often offer marketing support and visibility opportunities through their platforms, further amplifying a game's reach and sales potential.

Building Trust with Gamers

A key advantage of partnering with an MoR service is the trust and professionalism it brings to the transaction process. Gamers are more likely to purchase from a platform that offers secure payment options, transparent pricing, and compliance with tax laws. This trust boosts sales and enhances the overall reputation of the game, its developer and all their future projects. 

For self-publishing developers, navigating the complexities of global game distribution can be daunting. Merchant of Record services offer a solution that simplifies this process, allowing developers to confidently reach a global audience. 

By handling the intricacies of sales, taxes, payment processing, and compliance, MoR services enable developers to concentrate on their creative vision and build closer connections with their community. 

As the video game industry continues to evolve, leveraging the support of an MoR service will become increasingly critical for self-publishing success, ensuring that developers can navigate the global market effectively while maximizing their revenue and growth potential.

The Future of Video Game Distribution

In the dynamic landscape of video game distribution, the progression from tangible media to digital frontiers has transformed how games are accessed and enjoyed and reshaped the pathways to success for developers. 

The rise of self-publishing, bolstered by the empowering tools and services available today, marks a significant shift towards democratizing game development and distribution. Developers now have unprecedented opportunities to directly engage with their audience, retain creative control, and reap the financial rewards of their labour, challenging the traditional publisher-centric model.

As we look to the future, the continued evolution of digital distribution platforms, alongside the invaluable support of Merchant of Record services, promises to further level the playing field. This environment encourages innovation, reasonable risk-taking and supports diverse gaming experiences. For developers willing to navigate the complexities of self-publishing, the potential for success is boundless, heralding a new era of creativity and connection within the global gaming community.


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